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The kernel’s printk()
function seems like it should be relatively simple; all it does is format a
string and output it to the kernel logs. That simplicity hides a lot of
underlying complexity, though, and that complexity is why kernel developers
are still unhappy with printk() after 28 years. At the 2019 Linux
Plumbers Conference, John Ogness explained
where the complexity in printk() comes from and what is being done
to improve the situation.
The core problem, Ogness began, comes from the fact that kernel code must
be able to call printk() from any context. Calls from atomic
context prevent it from blocking; calls from non-maskable interrupts
(NMIs) can even
rule out the use of spinlocks. At the same time, output from
printk() is crucial when the kernel runs into trouble; developers
do not want to lose any printed messages even if the kernel is crashing or
hanging. Those messages should appear on console devices, which may be
attached to serial ports, graphic adapters, or network connections.
Meanwhile, printk() cannot interfere with the normal operation of
In other words, he summarized, printk() is seemingly simple and
definitely ubiquitous, but it has to be wired deeply into the system.
The path to the present
Ogness then launched into a detailed history of printk(); see his
slides [PDF] for all the details. The first kernel release — v0.01 —
included a printk() implementation; it was synchronous and simply
pushed messages directly to a TTY port with a bit of assembly code. It was
reliable, but not particularly scalable; once the kernel started supporting
multiple CPUs, things needed to change.
Version 0.99.7a added console registration; the “log level” abstraction was
added in v0.99.13k. The bust_spinlocks() mechanism, which
prevents waiting for spinlocks when the system is crashing and “goes
against everything everybody has learned”, was added in 2.4.0. With
2.4.10, big changes to printk() made it asynchronous. By 2.6.26,
printk() was causing large latency spikes; kernel developers dealt
with this problem by ignoring printk() in the latency tracer, thus
sweeping it under the rug. The 3.4 release added structured logging, sequence numbers, and the
/dev/kmsg interface. The “safe buffers” mechanism, used for
printing in NMI context, showed up in 4.10. A problem where one CPU
could get stuck outputting messages indefinitely was (somewhat) addressed
in 4.15. In 5.0, the concept of caller identifiers was added.
So printk() has seen a lot of development over the years, but
there are still a number of open issues. One of them is the raw spinlock
used to protect the ring buffer; it cannot be taken in NMI context, so
printk() must output to the lockless safe buffers instead. That
will create bogus timestamps when the messages are finally copied to the real
ring buffer, can lose messages, and cause the buffers to not be flushed when CPUs
don’t go offline properly.
Then, there is the issue of the console drivers, which are slow but are
nonetheless called with interrupts disabled. Most console devices are not
designed to work in a kernel-panic situation, so they are not reliable when
they may be needed most.
Other problems include the fact that all log levels are treated equally by
printk(); chatter treated like urgent information can create
latency problems, causing some users to restrict the levels that are
actually logged. The problem with one CPU being stuck logging forever has
been fixed, but the last CPU to come along and take over log output can
still be saddled with a lot of work. That makes any printk() call
potentially expensive. The whole bust_spinlocks() mechanism can
be described as “ignoring locks and hoping for the best”; there should be a
better way, he said.
The better way
The difficulties with printk() over the years, Ogness said, come
down to the tension between non-interference and reliability. Trying to
achieve both goals in the same place has been shown not to work, so a
better approach would be to split them apart. Non-interference can be
addressed by making printk() fully preemptable, making the ring
buffer safe in all contexts, and moving console handling to dedicated
kernel threads. Reliability, instead, can be achieved by providing a
synchronous channel for important messages, an “atomic consoles” concept,
and the notion of “emergency messages”.
Both goals depend on support from the printk() ring buffer. This
buffer has multiple concurrent readers and a single writer; it is stored
contiguously in memory and is protected by a special spinlock (the “CPU
lock”) that can be
acquired multiple times on the same CPU. This lock, he said, feels a lot
like the old big kernel lock.
Like any self-respecting kernel-development project, the printk()
work starts with the creation of a
new ring buffer meant to address the problems with the current one. It
is fully lockless, supporting multiple readers and writers in all
contexts. Metadata has been pushed out to a separate descriptor mechanism;
it handles tasks like timestamps and sequencing. The ring buffer has some nice
features, but it is also complicated, including no less than nine
memory-barrier pairs. It is hard to document and hard to review; he is
also not convinced that the multiple writer support — which adds a lot of
the complexity — is really needed.
The addition of the per-console kernel threads serves to decouple
printk() calls from console handling. Each console will now go as
fast as it can, and each can have its own log level. Shifting the
responsibility for consoles simplifies a lot of things, but leads to some
unresolved questions about locking and whether a thread-based
implementation can be relied upon to always get the messages out. But
reliability, Ogness said, will be handled by other mechanisms; the
per-console threads are a non-interference mechanism.
For reliability, the plan is to add an “atomic console” concept. Consoles
with this support would have a write_atomic() method that can be
expected to work in any context. This method is defined to operate
synchronously, meaning that it will slow down the system considerably;
it is thus only to be used for emergency messages. The advantage is that there
is no longer any need for bust_spinlocks() or the global
The challenge is creating console drivers that can actually implement
write_atomic(). He did an implementation for consoles attached to
an 8250 UART; it was “not trivial”. There will almost certainly be a lot
of systems that never get atomic-console support, so some other sort of
solution will be needed. He said that options include creating a special
console that fills a memory area instead, trying to print synchronously
outside of atomic context, or just “falling back to the current
Associated with atomic consoles is the idea of “emergency messages” that
must go out right away. The biggest problem here may be deciding which
messages are important enough to warrant that treatment. Log levels are
“kind of a gray area” and, he said, not really the way to go. There are
only a few situations where printk() output is really that
important; the right solution might be to hook into macros like
Ogness concluded by noting that this work began in February, with
the current version having been posted in August. Most of the features
described above have been implemented, he said, giving developers
“something to play with”.
A separate session was held later in the conference; your editor was
unfortunately unable to attend. Ogness has posted a summary of the
conclusions that were reached there, though. He thanked the community for
its participation in this meeting, which “certainly
saved hundreds of hours of reading/writing emails“.
From the summary, it seems that an
alternative ring buffer implementation posted by Petr Mladek will be
used instead; it is much simpler and thus easier to review. Ogness has
ported the rest of his work to use this buffer and shown that it works.
The per-console kernel threads will be used.
The “emergency messages” idea seems to have been superseded by the idea of
an “emergency state” that affects the system as a whole. When the kernel
is in that state, all messages will be flushed using the
write_atomic() callback where it is available. Flushing to
consoles without atomic support will not be supported. The CPU lock will
remain, but its purpose will be to synchronize the console threads when the
system is in the emergency state.
There will be other changes, including the addition of a
pr_flush() function that will wait for all messages to be sent out
to all consoles. Patches implementing all this work have not yet been
posted, but presumably they can be expected soon.
[Your editor thanks the Linux Foundation, LWN’s travel sponsor, for
supporting his travel to this event.]
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