Empowering data scientists with a feature store

PalFish is a Series-C online education company based in China. In Feb 2021, I joined PalFish to bootstrap the ML infrastructure team. At the time, PalFish applied real-time machine learning in many cases, including feeds personalization and courses recommendation, but the infrastructure was still in its infancy.

I talked to many data scientists to figure out the lowest hanging fruits and ended up building a feature store. Back then, there already existed a Feature Store V1 that ships features to production for online inference use. What I found out, though, was the whole engineering team take too much effort to productionize a new feature. Data scientists who own the model are often blocked by both data and product engineering teams to get the features ready.

In the post, I will walk through what the V1 looks like, what are the problems it has, and how our V2 solves these problems.

Feature Store V1 has three parts: feature engineering, online store, and online serving. The overall architecture can be found below.

Feature engineering consumes data sources (batch and stream), cooks the data into features (aka feature engineering), and writes to the online store. It runs on YARN (not k8s yet 😅) and is implemented as Spark (and Spark Streaming).

The online store allows low-latency access to features. We choose Redis because it is popular both inside PalFish and in the outside feature store world (see DoorDash and Feast).

An online serving provides gRPC API GetFeatures(EntityName, FeatureNames) to the outside world, that calls Redis’ HMGET EntityName FeatureNames[0] ... FeatureNames[N-1] under the hood.

V1 has a big problem – data scientists care most about the feature quality, but it is in data engineers’ hands to implement. This mismatch leads to:

  • Slower progress and more error-prone implementation due to cross-team communication.
  • Feature engineering logic has to be simple to avoid further communication costs, as a result, major data transformation logic is delegated to the model, which greatly slows down model inference.

To address these issues, Feature Store V2 aims to:

  • Let data scientists gain full control to iterate faster and less error-prone.
  • Hand over more feature engineering to the pipelines so that inference can do less and run faster.

V2 further splits the broad “feature engineering” into three parts: feature engineering, feature source, and feature ingestion. The overall architecture of Feature Store V2 is shown below.

v2 architecture

Side Note: We switch from Spark to Flink in a company-wise move.

Feature Engineering

A feature engineering pipeline consumes the data source, cooks it into features, and writes the features to a specified feature source. Again, there are 2 types of pipelines, stream and batch, depending on the type of data sources they consume.

What makes V2 stand out is that feature engineering logic is solely written by data scientists, using either PyFlink for streaming features or HiveQL for batch features. Specifically, to productionize a streaming feature, data scientists need to:

  1. Declare the Flink data source (source.sql) and implement the feature engineering logic (transform.sql) using Flink SQL.
  2. (Optionally) Implement UDFs in Python ( if needed.
  3. Generate an executable PyFlink script ( by running a custom codegen tool.
  4. Debug your PyFlink script locally in a pre-packaged Docker environment and ensure it works fine.
  5. Submit your script to a GitLab repo that hosts all feature pipelines code. Once it gets merged, CI/CD triggers the deployment.

v2 codegen

With the process:

  • Data scientists can determine when a feature can be delivered.
  • ML infra engineers ensure feature engineering code has high quality.
  • ML infra engineers can refactor the code if necessary without involving data scientists.

Feature Source

Feature sources store generated features in a fixed schema. It is a boundary that divides work between data scientists and ML infra engineers.

Feature Ingestion

A feature injection pipeline is a Flink job that reads features from feature sources and writes them to the online store. Since Flink doesn’t come with an inbuilt Redis sink, we rolled our own StreamRedisSink and BatchRedisSink by extending RichSinkFunction. It worths mentioning that BatchRedisSink leverages Flink Operator State and Redis Pipelining to improve write throughput, you can find the code example below if interested.

BatchRedisSink code example (Scala)

class BatchRedisSink(

pipelineBatchSize: Int

) extends RichSinkFunction[(String, Timestamp, Map[String, String])]

with CheckpointedFunction {


private var checkpointedState

: ListState[(String, java.util.Map[String, String])] = _

private val bufferedElements

: ListBuffer[(String, java.util.Map[String, String])] =

ListBuffer.empty[(String, java.util.Map[String, String])]

private var jedisPool: JedisPool = _

override def invoke(

value: (String, Timestamp, Map[String, String]),

context: SinkFunction.Context

): Unit = {

import scala.collection.JavaConverters._

val (key, _, featureKVs) = value

bufferedElements += (key -> featureKVs.asJava)

if (bufferedElements.size == pipelineBatchSize) {




private def flush(): Unit = {

var jedis: Jedis = null

try {

jedis = jedisPool.getResource

val pipeline = jedis.pipelined()

for ((key, hash) <- bufferedElements) {

pipeline.hmset(key, hash)



} catch { ... } finally { ... }



override def snapshotState(context: FunctionSnapshotContext): Unit = {


for (element <- bufferedElements) {




override def initializeState(context: FunctionInitializationContext): Unit = {

val descriptor =

new ListStateDescriptor[(String, java.util.Map[String, String])](



new TypeHint[(String, java.util.Map[String, String])]() {}



checkpointedState = context.getOperatorStateStore.getListState(descriptor)

import scala.collection.JavaConverters._

if (context.isRestored) {

for (element <- checkpointedState.get().asScala) {

bufferedElements += element




override def open(parameters: Configuration): Unit = {

try {

jedisPool = new JedisPool(...)

} catch { ... }


override def close(): Unit = {


if (jedisPool != null) {





V2 Summary

Feature Store V2 meets our goals. Now, data scientists own their features end-to-end: design, implement (with SQL and Python), test (locally with Docker), and launch. It leads to less error-prone implementation, and much faster iteration – the process took days, if not weeks, and now it takes only a few hours.

These are what we learn from the upgrade.

Give users the tools they want. Since data scientists are most productive with Python and SQL, we should NOT let them do Java or Scala, or even delegate feature engineering work to data engineers. Instead, let them write Python and SQL, and they will do their awesome work.

A platform should set the quality bar high. Given the current scale, we ask data scientists to go through a full pull request process in order to productionize a feature, during which we watch closely how data scientists work, and data scientists learn best practices of implementing a feature through code reviews. This turns out to work great!

Flink is awesome. They exercise what I have just described – keep building the tools that users want, and set the quality bar high.

If you find it interesting, discuss it on Twitter!

© Yik San Chan. Built with Vercel and Nextra.

Related Articles

Back to top button